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Conservation refugees and environmental dispossession in 21st century critical Geography

Scott William Hoefle

Resumen

Refugiados de la conservación y desposesión ambiental en la Geografía crítica del siglo XXI

Este estudio explora la relevancia de los conceptos de refugiados de la conservación y de la desposesión ambiental para adoptar una postura intermedia entre la conservación biocéntrica, cuyos efectos resultan injustos y el anti-ambientalismo que propone el populismo de la extrema derecha. La Geografía Histórica ha retomado recientemente estas nociones de la actual Historia Ambiental. Cuando ambos se conjugan con la ética ambiental de la Ecología Radical, los Estudios Ambientales y los recintos naturales de la Ecología Política se produce una nueva crítica del papel de las áreas protegidas en los debates alrededor del cambio climático global. Los espacios protegidos están impregnados de una ética ambiental biocéntrica que simplifica la naturaleza y despoja a los pueblos nativos y a los campesinos pobres. Estos últimos se convierten entonces en agentes antrópicos criminalizados y eliminados que devienen refugiados de la conservación para limpiar el paisaje de la presencia humana (rural y pobre). Este estudio se basa en la investigación realizada sobre recintos naturales en tres biomas amenazados de Brasil y utiliza las visiones híbridas del binomio sociedad-naturaleza y el ensamblaje de la red de actores de la Geografía Relacional para interpretar casos específicos. Estos son casos de resistencia exitosa a la desposesión ambiental en la que la gente local ha forzado un cambio en la mentalidad de los administradores de los espacios naturales protegidos, de modo que el enemigo se ha convertido en aliado y se han construido estrategias de conservación socialmente inclusivas.

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